• Notes Unit 4

    You have 46 chromosomes - 23 from your mom and 23 from your dad

    Chromosomes carry genetic information in the nucleus of your cells

     

    Probability: chances of something happening (%)

    Heredity: the passing of traits from parent to offspring

    Genes: instructions for an inherited trait

    alleles: Different forms of a gene

    Characteristic: a larger, broader version (ie. hair color)

    Trait: Specific forms of a characteristic

     Traits are like curly, where the characteristic would be hair

    alleles are singular - allele

    Punnetts Square: Used to organize different gene combinations

    Homologenous/Homozygous: same genes

    Heterogenous/heterozygous: different genes

    Dominant: stronger, will show

    Recessive: weaker will not always show and sometimes skips a generation

    Phenotype: what appears - what is seen by the world

    Genotype: what's on the inside (the genes)

    Pedigree: diagram used to chart a trait in a family tree

    Circle is female, male is square.

    Colored in is "has the trait", blank does not - half colored in means heterozygous (and it depends on if the trait is dominant or not if it will appear)

     

    In a plant - they can self-polinate (clone) or cross polinate (two plants fertilize one seed) - humans cannot self-polinate - plants have both male and female parts.

     

    Sex traits: XX (Female), XY (Male)

     

    Co dominant: Equal dominance in a phenotype (purple with white spots)

    Incomplete Dominance: combination of traits - like lavender