• Grade 6:  Ancient Civilizations

    Unit 1:  Early Humans & Societies

    Unit 2:  Mesopotamia

    Unit 3:  Ancient Egypt and Ancient Kush

    Unit 4:  Ancient India

    Unit 5:  Ancient China

    Unit 6:  The Hebrews & Judaism

    Unit 7:  Ancient Greece

    Unit 8:  The Roman World 


    The Common Core State Standards are a list of efforts in Reading, Writing, Math, Science, and Social Studies to help ensure that all students are college and career ready no later than the end of high school.


    These standards guide teachers in our practice of everyday activities and curriculum.

    • RH.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
    • RH.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
    • RH.6-8.3 Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).    
    • RH.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
    • RH.6-8.5 Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
    • RH.6-8.6 Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of    
    • RH.6-8.7 Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
    • RH.6-8.8 Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
    • RH.6-8.9 Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.   
    • RH.6-8.10 By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.


    Social Studies Grade 6 Ancient Civilizations


     6.2 World History/Global Studies: All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.


    Era: The Beginnings of Human Society

    1.The Beginnings of Human Society: Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages

    Hunter/gatherers adapted to their physical environments using resources, the natural world, and technological advancements.

    A.Civics, Government, and Human Rights

    • 6.2.8.A.1.a  Compare and contrast the social organization of early hunters/gatherers and those who lived in early agrarian societies.
    1. Geography, People, and the Environment
    • 6.2.8.B.1.a  Compare and contrast the social organization of early hunters/gatherers and those who lived in early agrarian societies.
    • 6.2.8.B.1.b  Compare and contrast how nomadic and agrarian societies used land and natural resources.        
    1. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
    • 6.2.8.C.1.a Relate the agricultural revolution (including the impact of food surplus from farming) to population growth and the subsequent development of civilizations.
    • 6.2.8.C.1.b Determine the impact of technological advancements on hunter/gatherer and agrarian societies.
    1. History, Culture, and Perspectives
    • 6.2.8.D.1.a  Demonstrate an understanding of pre-agricultural and post-agricultural periods in terms of relative length of time.
    • 6.2.8.D.1.b Relate the development of language and forms of writing to the expression of ideas, creation of cultural identity, and development of more complex social structures.
    • 6.2.8.D.1.c  Explain how archaeological discoveries are used to develop and enhance understanding of life prior to written records


    Era: Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples (4000-1000 BCE)

    1. Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples: Ancient River Valley Civilizations

    Ancient river valley civilizations (e.g., Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus River [modern Pakistan and northwestern India], and, later, Yellow River Valley in China) developed due to favorable geographic conditions. They created centralized systems of government and advanced societies.

    A.Civics, Government, and Human Rights

    • 6.2.8.A.2.a Explain why different ancient river valley civilizations developed similar forms of government.
    • 6.2.8.A.2.b  Explain how codifying laws met the needs of ancient river valley societies.
    • 6.2.8.A.2.c  Determine the role of slavery in the economic and social structures of ancient river valley civilizations.

    B.Geography, People, and the Environment

    • 6.2.8.B.2.a  Determine the extent to which geography influenced settlement, the development of trade networks, technological innovations, and the sustainability of ancient river valley civilizations.
    • 6.2.8.B.2.b  Compare and contrast physical and political maps of ancient river valley civilizations and their modern counterparts (i.e., Mesopotamia and Iraq; Ancient Egypt and Modern Egypt; Indus River Valley and Modern Pakistan/India; Ancient China and Modern China), and determine the geopolitical impact of these civilizations, then and now.

    C.Economics, Innovation, and Technology       

    • 6.2.8.C.2.a  Explain how technological advancements led to greater economic specialization, improved weaponry, trade, and the development of a class system in ancient river valley civilizations.                                        
    1. History, Culture, and Perspectives
    • 6.2.8.D.2.a  Analyze the impact of religion on daily life, government, and culture in various ancient river valley civilizations.
    • 6.2.8.D.2.b  Explain how the development of written language transformed all aspects of life in ancient river valley civilizations.
    • 6.2.8.D.2.c  Analyze the factors that led to the rise and fall of various ancient river valley civilizations and determine whether there was a common pattern of growth and decline.
    • 6.2.8.D.2.d  Justify which of the major achievements of the ancient river valley civilizations represent the most enduring legacies.


    Era: The Classical Civilizations of the Mediterranean World, India, and China (1000 BCE-600 CE)

    1. The Classical Civilizations of the Mediterranean World, India, and China

    Classical civilizations (i.e., Greece, Rome, India and China) developed and expanded into empires of unprecedented size and diversity by creating centralized governments and promoting commerce, a common culture, and social values.

    Cultural exchange and diffusion dramatically increased, and enduring world religions emerged, during the era of classical civilizations.

    Classical civilizations declined as a result of internal weaknesses and external invasions, but they left lasting legacies for future civilizations.

    A.Civics, Government, and Human Rights

    • 6.2.8.A.3.a Compare and contrast the methods (i.e., autocratic rule, philosophies, and bureaucratic structures; communication and transportation systems) used by the rulers of Rome, China, and India to control and unify their expanding empires.
    • 6.2.8.A.3.b  Compare and contrast the rights and responsibilities of free men, women, slaves, and foreigners in the political, economic, and social structures of classical civilizations.
    • 6.2.8.A.3.c  Determine the foundational concepts and principles of Athenian democracy and the Roman Republic that later influenced the development of the United States Constitution.
    • 6.2.8.A.3.d  Compare and contrast the roles and responsibilities of citizens in Athens and Sparta to those of United States citizens today, and evaluate how citizens perceived the principles of liberty and equality then and now.
    • 6.2.8.A.3.e  Compare and contrast the American legal system and the legal systems of classical civilizations, and determine the extent to which the early systems influenced the current legal system.
    1. Geography, People, and the Environment
    • 6.2.8.B.3.a  Determine how geography and the availability of natural resources influenced the development of the political, economic, and cultural systems of each of the classical civilizations and provided motivation for expansion.
    • 6.2.8.B.3.b  Explain how geography and the availability of natural resources led to both the development of Greek city-states and to their demise.
    1. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
    • 6.2.8.C.3.a  Analyze the impact of expanding land and sea trade routes through the Mediterranean Basin, India, and China.
    • 6.2.8.C.3.b  Explain how the development of a uniform system of exchange facilitated trade in classical civilizations.
    • 6.2.8.C.3.a  Explain how classical civilizations used technology and innovation to enhance agricultural/manufacturing output and commerce, to expand military capabilities, to improve life in urban areas, and to allow for greater division of labor.
    1. History, Culture, and Perspectives
    • 6.2.8.D.3.a  Compare and contrast social hierarchies in classical civilizations as they relate to power, wealth, and equality.
    • 6.2.8.D.3.b  Relate the Chinese dynastic system to the longevity of authoritarian rule in China.
    • 6.2.8.D.3.c    Determine common factors that contributed to the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, Gupta India, and Han China
    • 6.2.8.D.3.d  Compare the golden ages of Greece, Rome, India, and China, and justify major achievements that represent world legacies.
    • 6.2.8.D.3.e  Compare and contrast the tenets of various world religions that developed in or around this time period (i.e., Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Islam, Judaism, Sikhism, and Taoism), their patterns of expansion, and their responses to the current challenges of globalization.
    • 6.2.8.D.3.f  Determine the extent to which religions, mythologies, and other belief systems shaped the values of classical societies


    6.3 Active Citizenship in the 21st Century. All students will acquire the skills needed to be active, informed citizens who value diversity and promote cultural understanding by working collaboratively to address the challenges that are inherent in living in an interconnected world.

    Active citizens in the 21st century:

    Ø  Recognize the causes and effects of prejudice on individuals, groups, and society.

    Ø  Recognize the value of cultural diversity, as well as the potential for misunderstanding.

    Ø  Critically analyze media to assess different viewpoints and detect bias, opinion, and stereotypes.

    Ø  Listens open-mindedly to views contrary to their opinion, and stereotypes.

    Ø  Listens open-mindedly to views contrary to their own.

    Ø  Collaboratively develop and practice strategies for managing and resolving conflict. 

    Ø  Demonstrate understanding of democratic values and processes.

    Ø  Recognize that the actions or inactions of individuals, groups, and nations can have intended and unintended consequences.

    Ø  Challenge unfair viewpoints and behavior by taking action.

    Ø  Make informed and reasoned decisions.

    Ø  Accept decisions that are made for the common good

    Ø   Make informed and reasoned decisions.

    Ø  Accept decisions that are made for the common good


    1. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
    • 6.3.8.A.1  Deliberate on a public issue affecting an upcoming election, consider opposing arguments, and develop a reasoned conclusion.
    • 6.3.8.A.2  Participate in a real or simulated hearing to develop a legislative proposal that addresses a public issue, and share it with an appropriate legislative body (e.g., school board, municipal or county government, state legislature).
    • 6.3.8.A.3  Collaborate with international students to deliberate about and address issues of gender equality, child mortality, or education.
    1. Geography, People, and the Environment
    • 6.3.8.B.1  Evaluate alternative land use proposals and make recommendations to the appropriate governmental agency regarding the best course of action.
    1. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
    • 6.3.8.C.1  Contact local officials and community members to obtain
    1. History, Culture, and Perspectives
    • 6.3.8.D.1  Engage in simulated democratic processes (e.g., legislative hearings, judicial proceedings, elections) to understand how conflicting points of view are addressed in a democratic society.